Punctuation Marks & Typographical Symbols : Complete Guide

If you’re a copywriter, then you know that punctuation marks are essential for giving your writing the right flow and emphasis.

But did you know that there are actually many different types of punctuation marks?

In this article, we’ll introduce you to most if not all of them so that you can use them in your writing!

The Comma

The comma is a punctuation mark that is used to separate parts of a sentence. It can be used to separate items in a list, or to set off a clause or phrase. For example, commas are often used to set off adjectives or adverbs.

The comma can also be used to indicate a pause in speech. This can be helpful when reading aloud, or when you want to emphasize a certain word or phrase.

Commas are an important part of writing, and can help to make your meaning clear. When in doubt, it is always best to err on the side of using too many commas rather than too few.

The Semicolon

There are many different types of punctuation marks, each with its own purpose. The semicolon is one of the most common punctuation marks. It is used to join two independent clauses that are related to each other. For example:

I have a cat; her name is Mittens.

In this sentence, the semicolon is used to join the two clauses “I have a cat” and “her name is Mittens.” The semicolon helps to show that these two ideas are related to each other.

Semicolons can also be used in lists. For example:

I need to buy milk, bread, and eggs; I also need to buy some cat food.

In this sentence, the semicolon is used to separate the items in the list. This helps to make the list easier to read.

The semicolon is a very versatile punctuation mark. It can be used in many different ways to add clarity to a sentence.

The Colon

The colon is a punctuation mark that can be used in several different ways.

One use of the colon is to introduce a list of items. For example, you might say: “I need three things from the store: milk, bread, and eggs.”

Another use of the colon is to introduce a quotation. For example, you might say: “John F. Kennedy once said: ‘Ask not what your country can do for you, but what you can do for your country.'”

The colon can also be used for emphasis. For example, you might say: “There’s only one thing that I want for my birthday: a new car.”

Finally, the colon can be used to separate two independent clauses that are closely related. For example, you might say: “I have a great idea: let’s go on a road trip.”

The Dash

The dash is a punctuation mark that is used to indicate a break in thought or a change in direction. Dashes can be used in place of commas, semicolons, or parentheses to create a more dramatic effect. They can also be used to set off lists or quoted material.

There are two types of dashes: the em dash and the en dash. The em dash is the longer of the two and is used to create a greater emphasis. The en dash is shorter and is typically used when listing items or ranges.

Dashes can add personality to your writing and make it more interesting to read. However, you should use them sparingly so as not to overload your readers with too much information at once. When in doubt, it is usually best to stick with other punctuation marks such as commas or parentheses.

The Brackets

There are different types of brackets, and each has a different purpose.

Parentheses are used to enclose information that is not essential to the main point. For example, you might use parentheses to provide an aside or additional information.

Brackets are used to enclose information that is essential to the main point. For example, you might use brackets to clarify something or to provide missing information.

Angle brackets are used to mark off material that is quoted from another source. For example, if you are quoting someone in your paper, you would use angle brackets around their words.

Overall, there are many different types of punctuation marks. Each has a specific purpose and can be used in different ways.

The Ellipses

An ellipsis (…) is a punctuation mark that indicates an omission. Ellipses are often used in fiction to indicate a pause or break in the action. For example, an ellipsis may be used to indicate that a character is thinking about what to say next.

Ellipses can also be used in non-fiction writing to omit unnecessary words or parts of a quote that are not relevant to the point being made. When using an ellipsis in this way, it is important to make sure that the meaning of the sentence or quote is still clear.

Ellipses can be used in formal or informal writing. However, they should be used sparingly in formal writing, as they may be seen as a sign of laziness on the part of the writer.

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks are used to set off direct quotations and titles of short works. They can also be used to indicate that a person is speaking.

Quotation marks are usually written as a pair of identical marks. The first mark is called an opening quotation mark, and the second mark is called a closing quotation mark. Opening quotation marks are always placed before the quoted material, and closing quotation marks are always placed after the quoted material.

Quotation marks can be either double or single. Double quotation marks are more common in American English, while single quotation marks are more common in British English.

Here are some examples of how quotation marks are used:

“I’m going to the store,” she said.

“The Cat in the Hat” is a popular children’s book.

I read an article called “The Benefits of Exercise.”

Exclamation Point

The exclamation point is a punctuation mark that is used to show excitement, surprise, or emphatic statements. It is typically used at the end of a sentence, but it can also be used after an interjection or exclamation.

The exclamation point is made up of a single vertical line with a period at the top. It is sometimes referred to as a “bang” or “shout.”

The use of the exclamation point has been declining in recent years, likely due to its overuse in informal writing. In formal writing, it should be used sparingly. When it is used, it should be placed after the final word in a sentence, with no space between the word and the exclamation point.

Question Mark

The question mark is used to indicate a question. It is placed at the end of a sentence that is asking a question. For example, “Are you going to the store?” The question mark can also be used within a sentence, for example, “I wonder if he likes ice cream?” In this case, it is called an interrogative point.

Apostrophe

The apostrophe is one of the most commonly used punctuation marks. It has several different uses, which can be confusing for some people.

One use of the apostrophe is to show possession. For example, if you want to show that something belongs to someone, you would use an apostrophe. For example, you might say “That’s John’s book.” In this sentence, the apostrophe is used to show that the book belongs to John.

Another use of the apostrophe is to indicate missing letters in a word. This is often done for shortened words or words that are spoken informally. For example, you might say “I’m going to the store.” In this sentence, the apostrophe is used to indicate that the letter “a” is missing from the word “am.”

The apostrophe can also be used in plural forms of words. For example, if you want to make a word plural, you would add an “s” after the apostrophe. For example, you might say “We went to three different stores today.” In this sentence, the apostrophe is

The Hyphen

A hyphen is a punctuation mark that is used to join two words or parts of words together. For example, the word “co-founder” is made up of two parts that are joined together with a hyphen.

Hyphens are also used to create compound words. A compound word is a word that is made up of two or more words that are joined together. For example, the word “bookshelf” is made up of the words “book” and “shelf” that are joined together with a hyphen.

Hyphens can also be used to split a word at the end of a line of text. This is called a hyphenated word. For example, the word “basketball” can be split into two parts as “basket-ball”.

Overall, the hyphen is a punctuation mark that has many uses. It can be used to join two words or parts of words together, to create compound words, or to split a word at the end of a line of text.

Determination Marks

Determination marks are used to show that a sentence is coming to an end. The most common determination mark is the period, which is used to end a declarative or imperative sentence. Other determination marks include the exclamation point, which is used to show emphasis or excitement, and the question mark, which is used to indicate a question.

Indention

There are several different types of punctuation marks, each with its own specific purpose. Indentation is used to create a visual break in the text, making it easier for readers to identify different sections. For example, paragraphs are often indented at the beginning.

Indentation can also be used for quotations. When a quotation is indented, it sets it apart from the rest of the text and makes it clear that it is a direct quote from someone else.

Indentation is just one of the many types of punctuation marks available to writers. Others include commas, periods, question marks, and exclamation points. Each type of punctuation mark serves a different purpose and can help to make writing more understandable and effective.

White Space

One type of punctuation mark is white space. White space is the empty space between words or lines of text. It is used to create visual breaks in a text and to make it easier to read. White space can also be used to highlight certain words or phrases.

Another type of punctuation mark is the period. The period is used to end a sentence. It is also used after abbreviations. For example, “Mr.” and “Dr.” are both abbreviations that end with a period.

The exclamation point is another type of punctuation mark. It is used to show excitement or emphasis. For example, you might use an exclamation point after an interjection such as “Wow!” or “Oh no!”

The question mark is another type of punctuation mark. It is used to indicate a question. For example, if you are asking someone their name, you would use a question mark at the end of the sentence: “What is your name?”

Punctuation marks are important for adding meaning to a text. They can be used to create visual breaks, emphasize certain words or phrases, or indicate

Line Breaks

There are different types of punctuation marks, and each one serves a different purpose. Line breaks are used to indicate a pause in the text, or to create a new paragraph. They can be used to emphasize something, or to make the text easier to read.

Line breaks can be created in a number of ways, depending on the type of text. In poetry, line breaks are often used to create a specific rhythm or rhyme scheme. In prose, they can be used to break up long paragraphs of text, or to create suspense.

Line breaks can also be used for aesthetic purposes, such as to create visual interest on a page. They can also be used to add white space around certain words or phrases.

Overall, line breaks are a versatile tool that can be used in many different ways. They can be used to create rhythm and flow in a piece of writing, or to add visual interest.

Headings and Subheadings

There are different types of punctuation marks that can be used in headings and subheadings. The most common type of punctuation mark used in headings is the period. This is because it indicates the end of a sentence. However, other punctuation marks can be used in headings as well. For example, the exclamation point can be used to emphasize a certain word or phrase.

Another type of punctuation mark that can be used in headings and subheadings is the colon. This mark is often used to introduce a list of items. For example, a heading may read “Types of Punctuation Marks: 1. Headings and Subheadings.”

The dash can also be used in headings and subheadings. It can be used to create emphasis or to break up a sentence. For example, a heading may read “Types of Punctuation Marks – Headings and Subheadings.”

Overall, there are many different types of punctuation marks that can be used in headings and subheadings. The most important thing is to use the mark that best suits the context.

Lists

There are three main types of punctuation marks: lists, commas, and periods.

Lists are used to separate items in a list. For example, if you were listing the items in your grocery list, you would use a list. Lists can be either ordered or unordered. Ordered lists are usually numbered, while unordered lists are usually bullet points.

Commas are used to separate elements in a sentence. For example, you would use a comma to separate the items in a list within a sentence. Commas are also used to create pauses in a sentence. For example, you might use a comma to separate two independent clauses.

Periods are used to end sentences. Periods can also be used within sentences to create abbreviations. For example, the word “Mr.” is an abbreviation for “mister” that is created using a period.

The Period

The period is the most basic punctuation mark. It is used to end a sentence, and it looks like this: .

The period is usually followed by a space, and it signals the end of a thought. When you see a period, you know that you should stop reading and move on to the next sentence.

Periods are also used in abbreviations. For example, Mr. Smith is an abbreviation for Mister Smith. Mrs. Jones is an abbreviation for Missus Jones. Dr. Brown is an abbreviation for Doctor Brown.

Abbreviations are usually followed by a period, but there are some exceptions. For example, the word “etc.” does not have a period after it because it is already an abbreviation for “et cetera” ( Latin for “and so forth”).

In general, periods are very simple punctuation marks. They are used to end sentences and abbreviations.

When you see a period, you know that you should stop reading and move on to the next sentence or thought.

The Question Mark

The question mark is used to indicate a question. It is placed at the end of a sentence that is a question. For example, “What is your name?” The question mark replaces the period at the end of a sentence that is a question.

The question mark can also be used in abbreviations. For example, “U.S.” stands for “United States” and “Mr.” stands for “Mister.”

sometimes called an interrogation point, interrogation mark, or questant, is a punctuation mark that indicates an interrogative clause or phrase in many languages. The question mark is not used for indirect questions.

The Exclamation Point

The exclamation point is a punctuation mark that is used to indicate strong emotion or emphasis. It is typically used after an interjection or exclamation. For example,

“Wow!”
“Ouch!”
“Hey!”

The exclamation point can also be used for emphasis. For example,

“I really need to get a new car.”
“I’m so tired of driving my old car.”

The exclamation point is a versatile punctuation mark that can be used in a variety of ways.

The Comma

There are many different types of punctuation marks, but the comma is one of the most common. Commas are used to separate ideas or items in a list. They can also be used to join two independent clauses together. For example, “I went to the store, and I bought some milk.”

Commas can also be used to set off introductory phrases or words. For example, “In the morning, I always eat breakfast.” Or, “After school, I like to go outside and play.”

Sometimes, commas can be used for emphasis. For example, “I really don’t want to go to that party tonight.”

Overall, the comma is a very versatile punctuation mark. It can be used in a variety of ways to make writing clearer and more understandable.

The Semicolon

The semicolon is a punctuation mark that is used to join two independent clauses. Independent clauses are complete sentences that could stand on their own. However, when they are joined by a semicolon, they form a single sentence.

For example, consider the following two independent clauses:

“I have a dog.”
“I have a cat.”

These two clauses could be joined together with a semicolon to form a single sentence: “I have a dog; I have a cat.”

Semicolons can also be used to separate items in a list, especially if the items in the list are long or complex. For example:

“There are three things that I need to do today: buy groceries, finish my homework, and laundry.”

Here, the semicolon is used to separate the three items in the list. Without the semicolon, this sentence would be difficult to read and understand.

The Colon

The colon is a punctuation mark that is used to introduce a list of items, or to emphasize something that comes after it. For example, you might use a colon to introduce a list of items in a sentence, like this:

I need to buy some groceries: milk, bread, eggs, and cheese.

In this sentence, the colon is used to introduce the list of groceries.

You can also use a colon to emphasize something that comes after it. For example, you might say:

I have only one rule: never give up.

In this sentence, the colon is used to emphasize the rule.

The Dash

The dash is a punctuation mark that is used to indicate a break in thought or sentence structure. There are two types of dashes: the em dash and the en dash.

The em dash is the longer of the two dashes and is used to indicate a break in thought that is stronger than a comma. For example, “I was going to go to the store—but then I remembered that I didn’t have any money.” The em dash can also be used in place of parentheses to set off non-essential information. For example, “John Doe—the author of many best-selling books—will be speaking at the conference.”

The en dash is shorter than the em dash and is used to indicate a range or connection between two things. For example, “The conference will take place from June 12–14.” The en dash can also be used to replace the word “to” when indicating a connection between two things. For example, “We will need volunteers for the conference on Saturday–Sunday.”

Quotation Marks

Quotation marks are used to enclose a quoted or dialogue. They can be single (‘ ‘) or double (” “) quotation marks. In American English, double quotation marks are used most of the time. Single quotation marks are typically only used for quotes within quotes. In British English, single and double quotation marks are both used depending on the style guide being followed.

Quotation marks can also be used to set off special words or phrases. For example, they might be used to indicate that a word is being used in a non-standard way, such as when someone is using a word ironically. They can also be used to draw attention to a particular word or phrase.

Brackets

There are four main types of brackets: parentheses, square brackets, curly brackets, and angle brackets.

Parentheses ( ) are used to enclose information that is not essential to the main text. For example, you might use parentheses to give an example or to provide additional information.

Square brackets [ ] are used to enclose information that is essential to the main text. For example, you might use square brackets to indicate a correction or to add an emphasis.

Curly brackets { } are used to enclose information that is related to the main text. For example, you might use curly brackets to indicate a list or a set of instructions.

Angle brackets < > are used to enclose information that is not essential to the main text. For example, you might use angle brackets to show that something has been omitted or to add an emphasis.

Ellipses

An ellipsis is a series of dots (typically three) that indicate an omission in a text. Ellipses are most commonly used to omit words from a quoted sentence. For example, if you were quoting someone who said “I love chocolate,” but you wanted to omit the word “chocolate,” you would use an ellipsis like this: “I love…”

Ellipses can also be used to indicate a pause in speech. For example, you might use an ellipsis at the end of a sentence to show that the person speaking is hesitant or unsure.

Finally, ellipses can be used for dramatic effect, to create a sense of suspense or mystery. For example, if you were writing a horror story, you might use an ellipsis at the end of a paragraph to suggest that something terrible is about to happen.

Possessive Endings

Possessive endings are used to show ownership. They are typically added to the end of a noun, although they can also be added to some pronouns. To form the possessive of a noun, you add an apostrophe and the letter “s”. For example, the possessive form of “cat” is “cat’s”. If a noun ends in “s”, you can either add an apostrophe or an apostrophe and another “s”. For example, the possessive form of “boss” can be written as either “boss’s” or “bosses'”.

Possessive endings can be used to show that something belongs to more than one person. In this case, you would add an apostrophe after the final “s”. For example, the possessive form of “students” is “students'”.

Possessive endings can also be used to show that something belongs to a group of people. In this case, you would add an apostrophe after the final “s”. For example, the possessive form of “employees” is “employees'”.

Apostrophes

An apostrophe is a punctuation mark that is used in two main situations. The first is to indicate possession, as in “the dog’s toys” or “John’s car.” The second is to indicate that a letter has been omitted, as in “don’t” or “can’t.”

Apostrophes are also sometimes used to create contractions. A contraction is a word that is made by combining two words and omitting one or more letters. Common contractions include “don’t,” “can’t,” and “won’t.”

When using an apostrophe to indicate possession, the apostrophe goes before the “s” if the thing that is possessed is singular. For example, if you are talking about one dog, you would say “the dog’s toys.” If you are talking about multiple dogs, you would say “the dogs’ toys.”

If you are omitting a letter from a word, the apostrophe goes in the place of the missing letter. For example, if you want to say “do not,” you would say “don’t.” If you want to say “cannot,” you would say “can’t.”

When using an apostrophe to create a

Prime and Double Prime

1. Prime and Double Prime

The prime symbol (′) is used to denote feet (′), minutes (′), and seconds (″). For example, 5′10″ means 5 feet 10 inches. The double prime symbol (″) is used to denote inches. For example, 6″ means 6 inches.

Interrobang

The interrobang is a punctuation mark that combines the question mark and the exclamation point. It is used to indicate a surprised or questioning tone. For example, you might use an interrobang if you are surprised by something someone says, or if you are asking a question that you already know the answer to.

The interrobang was first introduced in the 1960s, and it has been gaining in popularity ever since. Some people believe that it is a helpful addition to the English language, as it can help to express complex emotions more effectively. Others find it to be unnecessary and confusing.

Whether you love it or hate it, there’s no denying that the interrobang is a unique punctuation mark. If you’re looking to add some personality to your writing, give it a try!

Index, Cheveron, and Asterisk

There are three main types of punctuation marks: index, chevron, and asterisk.

Index marks are used to indicate where a particular word or phrase can be found in a text. They are often used in dictionaries and indexes.

Chevron marks are used to separate parts of a sentence. They can be used to create lists, or to emphasize certain words or phrases.

Asterisk marks are used to denote footnotes or comments. They can also be used to indicate missing words or letters.

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